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Success Criterion:

Description

Each button element has an accessible name

Accessibility Requirements

This conformance rule relates to:

Test procedure

Applicability

The rule applies to elements that are included in the accessibility tree with the semantic role of button, except for input elements of type="image".

Expectation

Each target element has an accessible name that is non-empty

Assumptions

Accessibility Support

There are no major accessibility support issues known for this rule.

Background

Test cases

Passed

Passed example 1

Regular button.

Code Snippet:
 <button>My button</button>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Passed example 2

Value attribute as the accessible name.

Code Snippet:
 <input type="submit" value="Submit">
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Passed example 3

aria-label for the accessible name.

Code Snippet:
 <button aria-label="My button"></button>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Passed example 4

Span tag with role button and has name defined by aria-label.

Code Snippet:
 <span role="button" aria-label="My button"></button>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Passed example 5

Summary element has a default semantic role of button.

Code Snippet:
 <summary>Press Here</summary>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Passed example 6

Disabled elements are also applicable.

Code Snippet:
 <button disabled>Delete</button>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Passed example 7

Off screen elements should be tested.

Code Snippet:
 <html>
  <style>
    .notInPage {
      position: absolute;
      left: -9999px;
      top: -9999px;
    }
  </style>
  <body>
    <button class='notInPage'>Save</button>
  </body>
</html>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Failed

Failed example 1

Value attribute does NOT give an accessible name, only for input elements.

Code Snippet:
 <button type="button" value="read more"></button>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Failed example 2

Span tag with role button with no name.

Code Snippet:
 <span role="button"></span>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Failed example 3

Off screen element without an accessible name.

Code Snippet:
 <html>
  <style>
    .notInPage {
      position: absolute;
      left: -9999px;
      top: -9999px;
    }
  </style>
  <body>
    <button class='notInPage' value='delete'></button>
  </body>
</html>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Inapplicable

Inapplicable example 1

Image buttons are tested in a different rule.

Code Snippet:
 <input type='image' value='download'>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Inapplicable example 2

Not visible in page and not included in the accessibility tree.

Code Snippet:
 <html>
  <style>
    .notInPage {
      position: absolute;
      left: -9999px;
      top: -9999px;
    }
  </style>
  <body>
    <button class='notInPage' aria-hidden='true'>Confirm</button>
  </body>
</html>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Inapplicable example 3

Inapplicable: role overridden to link for button element.

Code Snippet:
 <button role='link'>take me somewhere</button>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Inapplicable example 4

Not included in the accessibility tree due to aria-hidden.

Code Snippet:
 <button aria-hidden="true"></button>
 
Example Output: Open in a new tab/ window

Glossary

Included in the accessibility tree

Elements included in the accessibility tree of platform specific accessibility APIs. Elements in the accessibility tree are exposed to assistive technologies, allowing users to interact with the elements in a way that meet the requirements of the individual user.

The general rules for when elements are included in the accessibility tree are defined in the core accessibility API mappings. For native markup languages, such as HTML and SVG, additional rules for when elements are [included in the accessibility tree][] can be found in the HTML accessibility API mappings and the SVG accessibility API mappings.

Note: Users of assistive technologies might still be able to interact with elements that are not included in the accessibility tree. An example of this is a focusable element with an aria-hidden attribute with a value of true. Such an element could still be interacted with using sequential keyboard navigation regardless of the assistive technologies used, even though the element would not be included in the accessibility tree.

Semantic Role

A semantic role is a semantic association that indicates an object’s type. This allows tools to present and support interaction with the object in a manner that is consistent with user expectations about other objects of that type.

Roles can be implicit through the element type or explicit through the role attribute.

The role attribute takes a list of tokens. The semantic role is the first valid role in this list. If none of the tokens are valid, the implicit role will be used instead.

Non-abstract roles defined in the following specifications are considered valid:

Other roles may be added as they become available. Not all roles will be supported in all assistive technologies. Testers are encouraged to adjust which roles are allowed according to the accessibility support base line. For the purposes of executing test cases in all rules, it should be assumed that all roles are supported by assistive technologies so that none of the roles fail due to lack of accessibility support.

Note: For HTML elements the implicit roles are documented in ARIA in HTML.

Accessible Name

The programatically determined name of a user interface element that is included in the accessibility tree.

The accessible name is calculated using the accessible name and description computation.

For native markup languages, such as HTML and SVG, additional information on how to calculate the accessible name can be found in HTML Accessibility API Mappings 1.0, Accessible Name and Description Computation and SVG Accessibility API Mappings, Name and Description.

Non-empty text string

A string of characters (text) is considered “non-empty” if it contains 1 or more characters that are contained within any of the following unicode categories:

  • Ll: Letter, Lowercase
  • Lu: Letter, Uppercase
  • Lt: Letter, Titlecase
  • Lo: Letter, Other
  • Lm: Letter, Modifier
  • Nd: Number, Decimal Digit

For more details on unicode categories, check out www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/category/

Test Aspects

Test aspects are defined as part of the ACT Rules format 1.0.
  • DOM Tree

  • CSS Styling

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